STANDARD REFERENCE SYSTEM AND GUIDELINES FOR WRITING ASSIGNMENTS

GUIDELINES FOR WRITTEN ASSIGNMENTS

An assignment is expected to be an academic essay. This means that it needs to be a scientific work that has been researched thoroughly, written systematically, logically and clearly, and contain a system of references to indicate and acknowledge the sources that have been used. Students need to study this guide carefully and consult it regularly whenever they prepare for and write an academic essay.

STRUCTURE OF AN ASSIGNMENT

All academic papers should have a clear and logical structure to assist the reader in evaluating the author’s argument. This guide uses the structure of an exegesis paper as an example of how to plan and prepare the basic structure of an academic paper.

  1. PREPARATION OF THE CONTENT OF THE PAPER

Before writing a paper, research the topic and arrange the information collected into a logical sequence. John Stubbs (1994:4) suggests the following steps in the exegesis:

1.1. Obtain the passage or topic from the lecturer or lectionary and write down what the passage says or ought to say.

1.2. Take careful note of the people, events or ideas in the passage.

1.3. Determine how the passage relates to the beginning, middle and end of the book as a whole.

1.4. Develop one conclusion, one main point.

1.5. Find a truly comparable, concrete case study from your own context.

 

  1. PARTS OF AN ACADEMIC PAPER

Once the material to be used has been prepared, arrange the final paper in the following manner:

2.1. Cover Page / Title Page:

2.1.1. Table of contents

2.1.2. Lists of figures, tables and abbreviations or terms included in the paper.

2.2. The Essay

2.2.1. Introduction:

Introduce the topic of discussion, provide background information, define or state the topic / question, and present the plan of coverage, in order of importance, including your line of argument, viewpoint or conclusion. (Makes up 10% of the essay)

2.3. Body:

Focus on the topic and address each point under discussion fully before moving to the next point. Statements and arguments need to be supported by evidence drawn from the sources that were consulted, either in the form of opinions, arguments or facts and statistics used by the sources. (See Reference techniques used in assignments)

2.4. Conclusion:

Briefly re-state the points that were argued in the essay as well as the conclusion that was arrived at concerning the topic. (Makes up 10% of the essay).

2.5. List Of References Or Bibliography:

(See Reference techniques used in assignments)

2.6. Annexes / Addenda:

2.6.1. Section of supplementary or additional information, with each sub-section clearly marked Annexure 1/A, Annexure 2/B, or Addendum 1/A, Addendum 2/B.

2.6.2. The final paper should be typed on A4 pages with wide margins, font size12, 1.5 spacing and pages should be numbered.

 

HARVARD REFERENCING SYSTEM

REFERENCE TECHNIQUES USED IN ASSIGNMENTS

This guide explains the Harvard reference system, which the institution expects all students to use in all assignments. If a student is already using another reference system, then the institution does not wish to force the student to adopt the Harvard method, but the institution wants to recommend it very strongly. If the student does not use this method, then he / she must consistently use another acceptable reference system.

LIST OF REFERENCES / BIBLIOGRAPHY

There is a clear distinction between a List of references and a Bibliography. A List of references (also known as Reference list/References) is a list of ONLY the sources cited (in direct quotations or paraphrases) in the assignment / essay, whereas a Bibliography is a list of ALL the sources that were consulted in preparation for the assignment, but were NOT all cited in the assignment / essay. The Bibliography, therefore, indicates to the reader the scope of the writer’s research.

This list is always placed at the end of an assignment, starting on a new page.

The list is organised alphabetically and if two or more sources by the same author, published in different years, are cited then they are organised chronologically, with the older publication(s) appearing first.

According to the Harvard method, all the references to books, reports and official documents included in the List of references or Bibliography should follow this format:

Author’s surname, Initial(s). Publication date. Title of book/report/official document. Edition (not if 1st edition). Place of publication: Publisher. (Name of series and number where applicable). Note: If no place of publication is available use ‘sl’ = sine loco, no place.

IN-TEXT REFERENCES

This refers to the direct quotations or paraphrases of the sources cited in the assignment / essay to provide evidence or support for the writer’s argument or position on the topic. In-text references follow the following format:

(Surname of author, date of publication: page number(s))

SPECIAL NOTE

For the purposes of clarity and cohesion, each of the following examples will provide the List of references first, followed by a corresponding example of the in-text reference (in the shaded block). Also, carefully study the examples provided to note the typographical detail, i.e. the use of italics, brackets and punctuation, especially the placing of full stops, commas and colons.

REFRENCE EXAMPLES

1.BOOK WITH ONE AUTHOR (1st edition)

Aldrich, J. C. 1981. Life-style in evangelism. Portland: Multonam.

Evangelism can be defined as……… (Aldrich, 1981:25).

Aldrich (1981:42) states that…….

2. BOOK WITH ONE AUTHOR (2nd, 3rd, etc. edition)

 

Edwards, G. 2004. Living by the highest life: living with the indwelling Lord. 2nd edition. Jacksonville, Florida: Seed Sowers Publishing.

‘Unfortunately, the intellect is always seen as superior to, and more trusted than, either emotions or will’ (Edwards, 2004:50).

 3. BOOK WITH TWO AUTHORS (year of publication not indicated)

Bakker, J.T. and Schippers, K.A. s.a. Gemeente: vindplaas van heil? Kampen: Kok.

(s.a. stands for sine anno, which is Latin for without year)

Bakker and Schippers (sa:214) believe that……..

A community is regarded as……….. (Bakker and Schippers, sa:263).

4.BOOK WITH THREE AUTHORS

Kritzinger, J.J., Meiring, P.G. and Saayman, W.A. 1984. You will be my witness. Pretoria: NG Kerkboekhandel.

‘……………………’ (Kritzinger, Meiring and Saayman, 1984: 103).

Kritzinger, Meiring and Saayman (1984:103) argue …………

5. BOOK WITH MORE THAN THREE AUTHORS

Snyman, S. et al. 1975. Stem en woord: ‘n handleiding by die studie van die vertolkingskunde. Doornfontein: Perskor.

Snyman et al, (1975:22) acknowledge……..

‘………………………………..’ (Snyman et al, 1975:48)

 6. WHEN AUTHOR(S) NOT NAMED, THE TITLE OF WORK IS LISTED FIRST

Books printed by Aldus Manutius and his successors. 1935. Leipzig: Fock.

In the work Books printed by Aldus Manutius and his successors (1935: 66) evidence is found of ………….

7. ONE AUTHOR WITH MULTIPLE PUBLICATIONS IN THE SAME YEAR

Bosch, D.J. 1981a. In search of mission. London: Church Missionary Society.Bosch, D.J. 1981b. Reviewing personal mission. London: Church Missionary Society.

To quote from Bosch (1981a:112) ‘…………..’. However, he also makes the point that…………………… (Bosch, 1981b: 85).

8. ARTICLE FROM AN EDITED PUBLICATION

Koyama, K. 1975. Christianity suffers from ‘teacher complex’. In Mission Trends, 2. Edited by G.H. Anderson and T.F. Stransky. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 70-75.Samson, C. 1980. Problems of information studies in history. In Stone, S. (ed) Humanities information research. Sheffield: CRUS, Ch. 3.

Koyama (1975: 72) continues by explaining…….

If referring to the publication as a whole…………(Anderson and Stransky: 1975)

“…………………………………” (Samson, 1980: 35).

9. CONTRIBUTION FROM A READER

Maimela, S.S. 1989. Black power and black theology in South Africa. In Mission as liberation: Third World theologies. Compiled by M.L. Daneel and J.N.J.Kritzinger. Pretoria: University of South Africa (Reader for MSB301-F), 300-313.

The liberation struggle in the Third World has.… (Maimela, 1989:308).

10. CONTRIBUTION FROM A TRANSLATED WORK

Kant, L. 1785. Fundamental principles of the metaphysics of morals. Translated by T.K. Abbot. 1988. New York: Prometheus Books.

Kant (1785:58) proposes that……..

 11. JOURNAL AND MAGAZINE / NEWSPAPER ARTICLES

11.1 JOURNAL

Surname, Initial(s). Publication year. Title of article. Title of journal. Volume number (issue number): page number(s) on which article appears.Bosch, D.J. 1981c. In search of mission: reflections on “Melbourne” and “Pattaya”. Missionalia 9 (1): 3-18.

 

Bosch (1981c: 6) comes to the following conclusion…………

 11.2 MAGAZINE / NEWSPAPER

Surname, Initial(s). Publication year. Title of article. Title of magazine / newspaper. Day and month of publication: page number on which article appears.Smith, P.G. 1999. New mass for 2000. The Southern Cross. 16 May: 1. 

 

In the article Smith explains that the new mass is ‘……………’ (Smith, 1999:2)

Note: If there is no author for the article then, the name / title of the journal / magazine / newspaper (in italics) is used as the author:

Pretoria News. 2011. The gloves are off. 11 November:1.

‘This summed up the sentiment…….’ (Pretoria News, 2011)

 

12. ARTICLE FROM AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OR DICTIONARY, AUTHOR GIVEN 

Delafons, A. 1973. Printing. Chamber’s encyclopaedia. London: International Learning Systems Corporation, 11: 209-213.

Kelly, A.J. 1987. sv ‘Logos’. In Komonchak,J.A., Collins, M. and Lane, D.A. (eds). The new dictionary of theology. Dublin: Gill and Macmillan.

(sv = sub verbo, Latin for ‘under the entry’)

The first printing press was established in…………….. (Delafons,1973:209).

Kelly (1987:88) defines ‘logos’ as…………………………………………

13. ARTICLE FROM AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA, AUTHOR NOT GIVEN

New Catholic Encyclopaedia (NCE). 1967. sv ‘Jesuits’. New York: McGraw-Hill, 5: 898-912.

‘The Jesuits were founded by……’ (New Catholic Encyclopaedia, 1967:899)

 14. A CORPORATE AUTHOR AND THE ABBREVIATION(See Additional notes for referencing, point 8)

World Council of Churches (WCC). 1980. Your kingdom come. Geneva: WCC.

In the article ‘Your kingdom come’ (World Council of Churches (WCC), 1980: 66)…

15. REFERENCES TO THE BIBLE

Bible. 1984. The New Jerusalem Bible. London: Darton, Longman and Todd.

‘I came that they may have life, and have it to the full’ (John10:10)

16. REFERENCES TO CATECHETICAL WORKS

Catechism of the Catholic Church (CCC). 1995. Nairobi: Pauline Publications Africa.

Rite of Christian Initiation for Adults (RCIA). 1988. Chicago: Liturgy Training Publications.

General Directory for Catechists (GDC). 1999. Pretoria: South African Catholic Bishops Conference.

 

‘Baptism and confirmation were for centuries considered to be a “double sacrament”’ (CCC 1290) [NB: 1290 is the number of the paragraph, not the page number.]

 17. REFERENCES TO VATICAN II DOCUMENTS

Vatican Council II. 1964. Lumen Gentium. Newport, New York: Costello.

‘………………………..’ (Lumen Gentium (LG) 44).

[NB: The first time you use the document, write out the name in full in italics and indicate the abbreviation, and use the paragraph number, not the page number.]

 18. REFERENCES TO LITURGICAL BOOKS

18.1 MISSALS

Daily Missal (DM). 2012. Nairobi: Paulines Publications Africa

[DM = Daily Missal]

 

Since Christ is ‘the life of the human race’ and ‘the resurrection of the dead’ (DM, 2012: 640), those who believe in Him are assured of everlasting life.   [N.B: 640 is a page number.]

Sunday Missal (SM). 1998. 2nd edition. London: Collins Liturgical

18.2 LECTIONARIES

Roman Missal (RM.LecI). 2012. Lectionary I: Sundays and Solemnities. 2nd edition. San Francisco: Ignatius Press.

Roman Missal (RM.LecII). 2012. Lectionary II: Proper of Times. 2nd edition. San Francisco: Ignatius Press.

18.3 SACRAMENTARY 

Roman Missal (RM.Sacr). 2011. Sacramentary. Nairobi: Pauline Publications Africa.

18.4 BREVIARY 

Prayer of the Church (PrC). 2009. Nairobi: Paulines Publications Africa.

19. REFERENCES TO CANON LAW

Code of Canon Law (Can). 1997. London: Harper Collins Publishers.

Marriage is both a ‘covenant’ and a ‘partnership’ into which a man and woman enters for their good, and that of their children (can. 1055)

[N.B: 1055 refers to the paragraph, not the page]

20. REFERENCES TO THE CHRISTIAN FAITH

Neuner, J. and Dupuis, J. (eds). 1996. The Christian faith: in the documents of the Catholic Church. Alba House, India: HarperCollins.

…………………… (Neuner and Dupuis, 2115). (NB: Number refers to paragraph number not page number)

21. REFERENCES TO ENCYCLICALS

John Paul II. 1981. Encyclical letter. Laborem Exercens, 14 September.

……. the ‘sphere of values’ (Pope John Paul, 1981:10). (NB: Number refers to paragraph number, not page number)

22. DISSERTATIONS AND THESES

22.1 Published

Zwane, P.L. 1999. An Analysis of the works of C. G. Oosthuizen on the Shembe church. Doctoral [or masters] dissertation. Pretoria: University of South Africa.

22.2 Unpublished 

Zwane, P.L. 1999. An Analysis of the works of C. G. Oosthuizen on the Shembe church. Unpublished doctoral [or masters] dissertation. Pretoria: University of South Africa.

The influence that Oosthuizen has is…….. (Zwane, 1999:65)

23. INTERVIEWS

King, N. 1999. Personal interview. 14 July, Pretoria.Manuel, T. 2010. Interview on Morning Live. Interviewed by Redi Direko. Radio 702. 18 February 2010.

King (1999) expresses very clearly that……………………………………

‘Interest rates are rising by 2.5% due to…….’ (Manuel, 2010)

 24. CONFERENCES

Truter, M. 1994. The role of the court interpreter in the new South Africa. Proceedings of the 1994 conference of the South African Institute of translators. Bloemfontein, 18-23 June, 1994. Johannesburg: The Institute.

Truter (1994) explains how the court interpreter ………….

 25. COURSE NOTES (HAND-OUTS AND OWN NOTES)

Kourie, M. 2010. The history of ancient philosophy. Pretoria: St John Vianney Seminary. [Unpublished lecture notes].   Kourie, M. 2010. The history of ancient philosophy. Pretoria: St John Vianney Seminary. [My lecture notes].

‘Socrates was the first philosopher who……..’ (Kourie, 2010)

26. OFFICIAL GOVERNMENT PUBLICATIONS

South Africa. Bureau of Statistics. 1969. Labour statistics: wage rates, earnings and average hours worked in commerce. Pretoria: Government Printer.

In terms of hours worked per day, the average earnings….. (South Africa. Bureau of Statistics, 1969:234).

27. SECONDARY SOURCES – ONE SOURCE CITED IN ANOTHER SOURCE 

Saayman, W.A., Daneel, M.L. and Kritzinger, J.N.J. 1985. The church in the Third World. Pretoria: University of South Africa. (Study guide 1 for MSB302-G).

Archbishop Desmond Tutu believes that………… (cited in Saayman, Daneel and Kritzinger, 1985: 139).

 

HARVARD REFERENCING SYSTEM FOR ELECTRONIC SOURCES

The general format for electronic sources in the List of references / Bibliography is as follows:

 1.WEBSITE

  • Author (person – surname and initials / organisation responsible for site)
  • NB if not known, site website / page title
  • Year (date created/ date last updated)
  • NB if no date , use sa (sine anno)
  • Name of sponsor of site
  • Place of sponsor of site (if available)
  • [Online] Available from: URL / Internet address, without a line-break if
      1. possible
  • accessed day / month / year (date of viewing) [cited……. ]International Narcotics Control Board. 1999. United Nations, Vienna. [Online] Available from: http://www.incb.org [cited 13 November 2011].
    1.  

 

‘……………………………….’ (International Narcotics Control Board, 1999)

 

  • DOCUMENT OR PAGE WITHIN A WEBSITE
  • Author (person – surname and initials / organisation responsible for site)
  • NB if not known, cite website or page title
  • Year (date created / date last updated
  • NB if no date, use sa (sine anno)
  • Title (in italics)
  • Name of sponsor of site
  • [Online] Available from: URL / Internet address, without a line-break if possible
  • accessed day / month / year (date of viewing) [cited……. ]Winston, J. 1999. A look at referencing. AAA Educational Services. [Online] Available from: http://www.aaa.edu.au/aaa.html [cited 13 November 2011].

 

The following reference system is recommended………..(Winston, 1999)

 

  • JOURNAL / NEWSPAPER SOURCES
  • Author(s) – surname(s) and initial(s)
  • NB if no author, list the article title first (See Note 11)
  • Year of publication
  • Title of article (not in italics)
  • Title of journal / newspaper (in italics)
  • All publication information
  • Journal: issue number, volume number, etc.
  • Newspaper: day, month, page of article)
  • Page range
  • Online] Available from: URL / Internet address, without a line-break if possible
  • Accessed day / month / year (date of viewing) [cited…..]

 

 

Morris, A. 2004. Is this racism? Representations of South Africa in the Sydney

 

Morning Herald since the inauguration of Thabo Mbeki as president. Australian Humanities Review 33, 12-16. [Online] Available from: http://www.lib.latrobe.edu.au/AJR/archive?Issue-August-2004/morris.html [cited 13 November 2011].

 

In the article, Morris (2004:13) states ‘……………………….’

 

  • ONLINE ENCYCLOPAEDIA
  • Author – surname and initial(s)
  • Year (date written)
  • Title of entry
  • Name of encyclopaedia (in italics)
  • Edition
  • Edited by (if relevant)
  • [Online] Available from: URL / Internet address without a line-break if
      1. possible
  • Accessed day / month / year (date of viewing) [cited…..]

 

 

Flynn, T. 2004. Jean-Paul Sartre. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Fall 2008 edition. Edited by E.N. Zalta. [Online] Available from: http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/fall2008/entries/sartre/ [13 November 2011].

 

‘Sartre’s gifts of psychological description and analysis are…’ (Flynn, 2004)

 

  • E-BOOK
  • Author(s) / editor(s) name – surname(s) and initial(s)
  • Date of publication
  • Title of e-book, in italics
  • Format (e-book)
  • [Online] Available from: URL/Internet address without a line-break if
      1. possible
  • Accessed day / month / year (date of viewing) [cited…..]

 

 

LLoyd, C.B. (ed) 2005. Growing up global: the changing transitions to adulthood in developing countries. e-book. [Online] Available from: http://www.nap.edu/books/11174/index.html [cited 13 November 2011].

 

The problem with transitions to adulthood……….. (Lloyd, 2005: 123)

 

  • BLOG
  • Author’s name (surname and initial(s))/ alias
  • Year of post
  • Title of the posting (if applicable)
  • Title of the site (in italics)
  • Format (blog)
  • Date of posting (day and month)
  • [Online] Available from: URL of the blog post, without a line-break if
      1. possible
  • Accessed day / month / year (date of viewing) [cited….]

 

 

Bartlett, A. 2007. The Bartlett diaries. Weblog, 12 May. [Online] Available from: http://andrewbartlett.com/blog/ [cited 13 November 2011].

 

In his blog, Bartlett (2007) states that he is………………….

 

  1. PODCAST
    1. Name of the podcast (in italics)
    2. Year
    3. Format (podcast)
    4. Publisher
    5. Date of podcast (day and month)
    6. [Online] Available from: URL of podcast post, without a line-break if
    7. possible
    8. Accessed day / month / year (date of viewing / listening) [cited….]

 

Lingua Franca. 2007. Podcast radio programme. ABC Radio National, 28 April. [Online] Available from: http://abc.net.au/rn/podcast/feeds/lin.xml [cited 13 November 2011].

 

A universal language for the whole world…………. (Lingua Franca, 2007).

Jill Kitson (Lingua Franca, 2007) reported that…………………. (NB: When referring to speaker).

 

 

 

 

  • CD-ROM
  • Title (in italics) / not in italics if CD-ROM has a name (see second
      1.     example)
  • Year of recording
  • Name of CD-ROM (italics), where relevant (see second example)
  • Format
  • Publisher
  • Place of recordingAustralia through time. 1994. CD-ROM. Random ROM in assoc. with the ABC, Sydney.  
    1. Acid rain. 1996. Microsoft Encarta 96 Encyclopaedia. CD-ROM. Microsoft Corporation, Redmond: WA.
    2.  

 

……………………………………….. (Australia through time, 1994)

As noted in Acid rain (1996)…………………………………..

 

 

ADDITIONAL NOTES FOR REFERENCING

 

  1. Using Italics
    1. The title of a book or a journal is italicised, but the title of an article is
    2.     not.
    3. Also, italicise the title of a book, a journal or a newspaper when
    4.     referring to it in the text of an essay.
    5. When using words in a language that is not English, they need to be
    6.     written in italics.

 

  1. In the case of citing an article from Mission trends, edited by Anderson and Stransky, the reference is placed under the author of the article, not under that of the editors.
  2. A study guide is treated like any other book, and is therefore placed under its author(s).
  3. If the author is a priest or a religious belonging to an order, for example Gerald O’ Collins SJ, do not include the letters SJ, OFM, etc. in the reference or bibliography.
  4. When different authors are cited simultaneously in the text of the assignment / essay, a semicolon within the same set of brackets separates their names. While no spaces are left between the date, the colon, the pages and the semi-colon, a space is left between the semi-colon and the following author, e.g. (Robertson, 2001:45; Keenan and Pillay, 1998:122; Khumalo et al, 2002:25-28).
  5. When referring simultaneously to several works by the same author which appear at different dates, the author’s name is given in brackets, followed by the publication dates separated by commas, e.g. (Majozi, 1995, 1998, 2002, 2003). When page numbers are given, the references are separated by semi-colons, e.g. (Majozi, 1995:227; 1998:23; 2003:12) or (Majozi, 1995:227; Majozi, 1998:23; Majozi, 2003:12).
  6. If the same source is cited several times consecutively in the same paragraph, the full citation is given the first time. Thereafter only the page numbers need to be mentioned preceded by a colon. Place the page reference at the end of the relevant phrase or at the end of the sentence, e.g.

 

Verryn (1980:197) argues the case for an ‘Abrahamic faith’, for the people who are called ‘to be a source of blessing to society, but are not destined to regulate it’, for a church that is not a domesticated church but rather a pilgrim church (:194), a church which ‘cannot find a final resting place in any class, nation or epoch, although, at the same time, it is of every age, people and group’ (:196).

 

Note: This applies within the same paragraph. If the next paragraph continues the same discussion, the full reference must be given the first time.

 

  • Citing Corporate Authors And Their Abbreviations

 

The first time a corporate author is mentioned either in the text of the assignment / essay or as an in-text reference in brackets, the full title is written out followed by the abbreviation in brackets, e.g. World Council of Churches (WCC). Thereafter, use only the abbreviation, it is not necessary to write it out in full, e.g. The WCC agreed on the following issues……..

 

  • General Guidelines For Citations 
  • A word or a short phrase may be written as part of the sentence it appears in, within single quotation marks, e.g.
  • English is perceived as a language which can ‘accommodate many nationalisms’ (Butler,1985:166)
  • A citation that is longer than a short phrase but shorter than three typed lines, is also put in single quotation marks and separated from the rest of the sentence by a comma or colon, e.g.
  • In their book Gifted children, Branch and Cash (1966:87) make the point that: ‘In working with maladjusted children it is necessary to break down barriers’.
  • A citation that is longer than two full sentences or three typed lines needs to be separated from the main body of the text and indented, but without quotation marks, e.g.Smith (1983:63) states:
      1. It is often said that language and culture are inextricably tied together and I completely agree with that. But the implication has been that English is therefore inextricably tied to American culture or British culture or Australian culture. When it is stated that way it seems ridiculous because we know there are many cultures in these countries and that any culture can use English as its vehicle.
      2.  
  • QuotationsPius XII describes the liturgical movement as ‘a movement of the Holy Spirit in the church’.
      1. Quotations are always to be indicated by single inverted commas, e.g.
  • A quotation within a quotation is indicated by double inverted commas, e.g. 
      1. Villa-Vicenzio (2001) notes that ‘story-telling, in one form or another is part of all traditions, cultures and civilisations. Ellen Kuzwayo once told me “If you cannot understand my story, you do not accept me as your neighbour”’.
  • Paraphrasing SourcesA paraphrase is a re-wording of a piece of writing from a source. The goal is to state the author’s ideas accurately, but in your own words. Therefore, a paraphrase calls for a careful study of the original material. In addition, a paraphrase should not contain any words or phrases that include your own opinion about or evaluation of the writer’s ideas. One of the best ways to make sure that you understand an idea is to see if you can express it in your own words.
  • Use some of the following phrases when paraphrasing:
    1.  
    2.  

 

  1. There are different methods to indicate the use of citations in a text, depending on how long the quotation is:
  • X points out……….                                 X shows us that……….
  • X draws to our attention that……         X suggests / states that……….
  • It was X who said……….                     To quote from X………
  • In a book / article entitled……….         X makes the point that……….

 

 

 

 

 

These phrases can also be used in direct quotations, instead of always repeating, X says ‘…………….….’

 

  • A SAMPLE ESSAY

 

 

The following is a short sample essay in which the different aspects of the Harvard referencing method are illustrated. The essay is rather artificial as it was ‘contrived’ for the express purpose of illustrating the reference method and the content does not flow very logically. The purpose of including it is to help with understanding the method more easily.

 

EVANGELISM AND THE CHURCH

 

Evangelism has been the source of many malpractices in the life of the church. Lately there has been an increased call for beauty to be considered as a primary instrument of evangelism (Aldrich, 1981:25). Through the quality of its life the church must attract people to the truth of God. Aldrich (1981:25) has written a book in which he contends that the beauty of the ‘Bride of Christ’ is the key to evangelism.

 

It is not generally agreed that the church plays such an important role in the coming of the kingdom of God (Bakker and Schippers, sa: 16). Many Christians give up on the church and join missionary organisations not affiliated with churches (Kritzinger, Meiring and Saayman, 1984:14).

 

The polemic about these ‘para-church’ organisations continues unabated. Some theologians stress the importance of the church in ‘making disciples’ as expressed especially in Mt 28:16-20 (Bosch, 1981a:6). One of the main points of contention between ‘evangelicals’ and ‘ecumenicals’ has been the role and function of the church in the fulfilling of the ‘missio Dei’ (Bosch, 1981b:6). At the Melbourne CWME conference of the World Council of Churches (WCC) it was stated that every church should be ‘truly open to the poor, the despised, the handicapped, for whom our modern societies have little care’ (WCC, 1980:193). A similar sentiment is expressed by black theologians such as Goba, who speaks of the mission of the church as ‘one which is committed to the realisation of authentic forms of human liberation’ (in Saayman, Daneel and Kritzinger, 1985:139). It is important that Christians should get rid of their ‘teacher complex’ and learn to serve the world (Koyama, 1975:70). In similar vein, Maimela (1989:309) calls on white Christians to ‘listen and be open to the cries of your fellow black Christians’.

 

  • LIST OF REFERENCES

 

    1.  

Aldrich, J.C. 1981. Life-style evangelism. Portland: Multnomah.

 

Bakker, J.T. and Schippers, K.A. sa. Gemeente: vindplaas van hel? Kampen: Kok.

 

Bosch, D.J. 1981a. In search of mission. London: Church Missionary Society.

 

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